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Sometimes, crashes or injuries can improve your expenses unexpectedly. You might be unable to shell out these charges and get not any other way to get dollars. At these times, a cash advance may be what you must make comes to an end fulfill. Keep reading to determine some helpful advice about most of these lending options.
Normally, online payday loans require that you just pay back the funds all around fourteen days afterwards. Things occur at times you could possibly struggle to put together the money to solve the money by its expected particular date. Don’t be worried about getting into default. Plenty of businesses provides you with a choice to “roll more than” your loan, that allows the borrowed funds to become prolonged. Nonetheless, you will still may possibly incur some charges.
When thinking about getting a pay day loan, ensure you know the settlement method. Often you might have to give the financial institution a article old verify that they can cash on the because of time. In other cases, you are going to only have to give them your bank account info, and they can instantly subtract your settlement from your profile.
As soon as you opt to get yourself a cash advance, get a complete contract and read it carefully. There are many con artists out there looking to make a swift dollar away from individuals needy conditions. Some even create your account to instantly withdraw cash.
Take into account just how much you honestly require the money that you are considering credit. If it is something that could hold out until you have the funds to purchase, use it away. You will likely discover that online payday loans are certainly not an affordable choice to purchase a major Tv set for a soccer video game. Reduce your credit through these loan providers to emergency scenarios.
Ensure you have a look at all of your available choices. By comparing online payday loans for some other loans, like personal loans, you might find out that some creditors will offer a much better rate of interest on payday cash loans. It will depend upon your own credit score and just how a lot you want to acquire. By taking the time to look into different loan options, you will end up certain to get the best feasible deal.
Consider other ways to axquire lending options before you choose to have a pay day loan. In spite of cash advances on charge cards, it won’t offer an interest rate up to a cash advance. Check with friends and relations for assist to see if you can avoid obtaining a cash advance.
You have to ensure that you possess sufficient function historical past when applying for online payday loans. Loan companies often would love you to obtain did the trick for 3 a few months or higher using a constant cash flow before offering you any cash. You will have to give evidence of your income if you sign up for the financing.
Spend time looking around prior to commit to 1 lender. You will find a great deal of diverse payday loan firms, every single could have various interest levels, and different phrases making use of their loans. Through taking serious amounts of look at several organizations, it will save you plenty of your difficult-received dollars.
Remember that the pay day loan provider you are handling will get access to your several of your bank account information. Be familiar with tricks and concealed costs that happen to be frequently an integral part of payday loans. In the event you obtain by way of a loan company that isn’t respected or genuine, this might enable you to get in more serious monetary difficulty, which you wish to avoid.
You should realize that if your cash advance is just not paid back when it is thanks, the balance you are obligated to pay will visit a assortment agency. This will lower your credit ranking. You should ensure that the right amount of money happen to be in your money in the particular date of your lender’s scheduled drawback.
Call the payday advance company if, you will have a downside to the repayment plan. Whatever you decide to do, don’t disappear. These organizations have reasonably competitive selections divisions, and can often be difficult to cope with. Just before they take into account you delinquent in payment, just refer to them as, and tell them what is going on.
Once you make application for a payday loan, make certain you affect a single lender rather than multiple ones. You boost the probability your app is certain to get turned down in the event you affect numerous loan providers simultaneously as it might be observed as reckless from the loan companies.
Payday cash loans have grown in recognition previously couple of years. At times buddies or banking companies can’t or won’t let you obtain money. Online payday loans could be a excellent substitute and ideally, you might have acquired all you need to know using this type of write-up.

Small Business Advice: 4 Business Blogging Tips

Small businesses often ask for advice as they begin to explore the possibilities of getting involved with taking their efforts at increasing their income onto the Internet. With the many new businesses that are being created daily and new websites popping up frequently, you really should understand that if you are going to be successful, there are a few things you should be doing. As such, here are 4 business blogging tips that will help you as your enter this new online arena.

1. The first thing to do is to research and find keywords that are relevant to your site, and use these keywords to create content. Make sure that people are searching for the keywords you have selected, or no one will find your site no matter how good you think your keywords are.

2. Sprinkle the keywords throughout the articles you write, but also use those same keywords as part of the title for your website. The keyword density should never be higher than about 2% or Google may target your site or blog as spam, and you will never obtain the higher rankings you are after.

3. Be sure that you are consistently updating your blog regularly with fresh content. This will let the search engines know that you are active with your blog and that it is the real deal. Be sure to ping your new content to bring the search engine spiders back to take a look and rank your site.

4. The next step is to share your blog with content directories with your link included. Be sure to check the guidelines on these directories so that you always place your link correctly for the individual directories.

Using these 4 simple tips you are sure to be successful with your business blogging efforts by generating more traffic. OK, get blogging!

Free Publishing Resources

Reading is the number one method of attaining knowledge or skill today. It is also among the best and most low-priced methods of entertainment. Today, fortunately, there are a wide array of places to get ebooks online. In many cases these electronic documents are free. This means that if you are willing to give away some of your work, you may be able to get your eBook seen more readily.

One of the best ways to market your eBook will be to make it available for download on a free eBook website, and generally as an Adobe PDF (portable document format). Many of these websites are wildly popular and will markedly increase the visibility and popularity of your product.

People today use a wide variety of methods to read books. The ebook, because it is so portable, is used more frequently than the paper book. Uploading your electronic version to one of the free eBook download sites will make it more popular, simply because it will be more portable.

Among the best sites to use for free eBook downloads and marketing are the following places. Upload yours here and download other people’s free ones for your own personal use.

– Amazon Free ebooks – Amazon brings you a wide variety of free full books in the eBook section, some of them are from very popular writers. They also offer short stories in the free eBook section. Uploading your own electronic book to Amazon will make it visible to literally millions of users.

– The Gutenberg Project – While Gutenberg does not accept free ebooks for publishing in most cases, they do offer out of copyright books for you to download. These books may give you good ideas about how to format and create your own ebook.

These are just two of the many hundreds of free eBook sites. Many will accept your work and offer it for free download, which will increase your online visibility and help you in your marketing efforts.

An Electronic Book Reader can be a virtual library at your beck and call. These Portable Reader devices have caused a revolution in the way we think about books, magazines, blogging and newspapers and continue to make innovative progress in size and power. If you’re looking for an Electronic Book Reader for yourself or someone else, do some research to find the one that’s best for you.

Amazon’s Kindle Reader remains the most technologically sound investment you can make in a Portable Reader device. Its diminutive size belies the power it contains internally and out of view. But when you realize the capabilities of the Kindle Reader, you’ll be awestruck that something so tiny can so easily hold up to 1,500 books and deliver one at a moment’s notice. It sounds even more unbelievable that you can download a book from almost anywhere in the world – without having to hook up to a wireless connection – but it does.

Most people have a checklist of features they desire in an Electronic Book Reader. Included in the list are:

• Lightweight and portable
• Wide variety of downloadable books and other reading material
• Wireless capability and long battery life
• Easy to read
• Audio

Of all the available Electronic Book Readers, the Kindle Portable Reader fits all the above criteria – and more. At 10.2 ounces, Amazon’s Kindle is lighter than a paperback book and only 1/3 of an inch thick – making it extremely portable and easy to handle. Books and other reading material such as magazines, newspapers and blogs are readily available in a wide variety of titles and issues – and there’s no such thing has having to find a wifi connection in order to download with the Kindle Portable Reader.

The non-glare screen of the Kindle Reader makes it easy to read – and you can effortlessly turn on the text to speech feature for the audio versions of the reading material. Amazon’s 3G wireless feature means that you have coverage in the United States or overseas with no monthly charges. It’s all included in your purchase of the Kindle Portable Reader.

There’s also a dazzling collection of leather and vinyl covers book lights and other accessories for the Kindle Electronic Book Reader and with the incredible amount of books (now, over 420,000 titles) and other available reading material you don’t even have to leave the comfort of your home to have an entire library at your fingertips.

The rising interest of customers, manufacturers and suppliers in Dubai has made it one of the hottest destinations for the export and import of electronics consumer appliances. This all happened because the rapid market saturation around the globe, especially around the western countries did not seem to be stopping.

The rapid shrinkage in European markets forced the European and American manufacturers to look for a safer ground. Dubai turned up as the leading contender in this rescue act. It provided them enough opportunity to establish firmly an already shaking business.

The rising income per-capita in UAE, thanks to its oil exports and well-devised liberal market policies, made Dubai a battle ground for the leading manufacturers of electronics consumer appliances. Firstly, the Japanese manufactures and suppliers took a complete control over the consumer appliances market in Dubai.

However, the current situation seems to be favorable for European and American manufacturers. They have filled up the shelves of Dubai malls with their products. Definitely, they have proved better in the marketing management. Their customer-luring strategies have worked.

According to a report, the current electronics consumer appliances market is well set to see a skyrocketing growth of 28-30% in this year of 2008. This unbelievable rate of growth will be more accelerated in coming years.

Since 1971, when UAE came into form, this country, especially Dubai has been the most important hub for the international buyers. Initially, the customers from countries like India, Sri Lanka, Iran, Pakistan and many African nations etc invaded this market. Most of them used to work in Dubai. They bought appliances to take them back home.

Basically, they bought audio & video systems and household appliances. The trend is still on the rise as the numbers of workers from that part of the world is increasing day by day.

Apart from these Asian consumers,the people from Europe and America too have developed craze of buying electronics consumer appliances in Dubai. Definitely, they get those stuffs cheaper by 10-20%.

The Dubai market boasts to have the best collection of consumer appliances produced by the best manufacturers in this world. Hence, the tourist from all around the globe love to hang out here not only to see the glassy skyscrapers and the glittering sea beaches but to explore the finest market, probably, in the world.

Radiator experts are frequently asked whether electric radiators are “efficient” and, more specifically, whether storage heaters are more “efficient” than other types of electric heating.

When it comes to radiators, the word “efficiency” can be interpreted in many ways. From our experience, when a customer asks “Which radiators are the most efficient?” they could mean:

Which radiator gives out the most heat for its size?
Which radiator is the cheapest to run?
Which radiator uses the least fuel?
Which radiator heats up the quickest?
Which radiator is most environmentally friendly?
Electric radiators are generally regarded as being 100% efficient as almost 100% of the electricity consumed by the radiator is converted into heat and released into the room. (This differs from piped hot water central heating systems where some of the heat can be lost through the pipes on route to the radiators and the boiler.) Therefore it could be argued that all electric radiators are equal in efficiency as the energy put into the radiator will equal the amount of heat put out.

So the questions above cannot be answered by looking at efficiency; instead the key to choosing the best electric radiator is to decide which would be most effective in your specific situation.

This article aims to give clear information and facts to help you choose the electric heating product that best matches your unique lifestyle and heating needs. This will then enable you to minimise any wasted energy, which in turn will help reduce the amount of fuel you use, therefore reducing the cost of your electricity bills and your impact on the environment.

Whichever form of electric heating you opt for, we always suggest looking at the various energy providers’ tariffs to compare pricing as the cost of electricity can vary significantly; pricing does not only vary between suppliers but also between the wide varieties of tariffs offered by each supplier.

Below we have provided a summary of the electric heating options available on the market detailing their pros and cons to help you choose which option is the best for your home.

Electric heaters or electric radiators generally come in two distinct styles:

Storage heaters; or

On demand heaters, namely;
Radiant heating panels;
Convectors; and
Liquid-filled electric radiators.

Storage heaters

These make use of the cheaper electricity that is available at night on an economy tariff. Electricity is used to heat up ceramic bricks within the heater overnight which then “store” the heat and slowly release it gradually over the course of the following day. Storage heaters were historically seen as the only real alternative to gas central heating and are still a common sight in homes across the UK.

Example: Using a storage heater in a room that requires 1kW of heat

Require a storage heater that consumes around 3.2 kiloWatts or kW per hour.
Economy 7 tariff = 7 hours electricity at a cheaper rate during the night.
Storage heater is set to “charge” for these 7 hours, consuming 3.2kW per hour for 7 hours.
Consumes a total of 22.4kW per night.
Releases the 22.4kW of heat consumed over a 24 hour period = heat output of 0.933kW of heat per hour.
This means that storage heaters are efficient, insomuch as they give out all the energy that they consume, however they do consume a lot of energy. Interestingly, storage heaters were originally developed during the strikes of the late seventies and there is an argument that the government encouraged their use at this time as they were keen to keep the power stations running to make the country dependent on the coal industry.

Storage heaters can offer a practical solution for many homeowners; for example, as the heat is released throughout the day, storage heaters are more suitable for people who are retired or at home throughout the day. Alternatively, if you work full time and do not require heating during the day, storage heaters may not be the best option as heat will be emitted even when you are not there, resulting in unnecessary energy wastage.

The nature of storage heaters does make them harder to control than “on demand” heating products. For instance, consider the following scenarios:

You spontaneously decide to go out for the day, but you have already paid for that day’s heating;
You go on holiday and turn the heating off, but there will be no “charge” in the heater when you return, meaning time sat in a cold house; and
You may want to turn the heating off in summer, but an unexpected cold snap might mean you need to do an urgent “boost” on the heaters during the day, which would be charged at a high peak rate.
This lack of controllability makes homeowners reluctant to deviate from the pre-determined charging hours and standard usage.
Also as storage heaters age, their internal insulation can break down; resulting in heat being expended too fast and so supplementary heating may be required for later on in the day; this supplementary heating would be charged at the peak rate per hour, rather than the economy rate. Bear in mind that the peak rates on Economy tariffs are usually significantly higher than at any time on non-Economy tariffs and these rates apply to all appliances used during peak hours, not just radiators.

Storage heaters are often deemed unattractive and the nature of their design makes them quite bulky protruding significantly into a room.

On demand heaters

The following 3 forms of electric heating consume electricity “on demand” unlike storage heaters. “On demand” heating products allow you to only turn the heater on when you need heat, and turn it off when you don’t need heat. This makes them the better option for avoiding wasted energy as you only have the radiators on as and when needed and there is no need to second guess what the weather will be doing 24 hours in advance, which is particularly useful with the unpredictable British climate. On demand heaters are normally used with regular, non-Economy electricity tariffs, which do not use cheaper night-time rates.

Example: Using an on-demand heater in a room that requires 1kW of heat

Require an on-demand heater that consumes 1 kW per hour.
Standard electricity tariff = same rate at all times of the day.
For someone who works 9am to 5pm; On-demand heater timer is set to come on at 7am till 8am and 6pm till 11pm, so consumes 1kW per hour for 6 hours.
Consumes a total of 6kW per day giving a heat output of 1kW of heat per hour.
This example shows a significant reduction in the amount of energy used by someone who works standard hours; when comparing a storage heater with an on demand heater, despite the electricity being charged at a higher rate than on the rates for the Economy 7 tariff, this could still be the most cost effective option in this type of scenario.

On demand heating products, as detailed below, usually provide a better solution than storage heaters to the question “which radiator is most efficient?”

Radiant heating panels are either hollow, or, more commonly, are a sealed unit. An electric element is concealed within the radiator, which heats up and radiates heat out evenly from the front of the radiator. Radiant heat is absorbed by the furniture, fabrics and carpet in a room, so the warmth is retained for longer. This type of radiator is particularly good for people with dust allergies as their flat panel makes them easy to clean and they don’t “convect” heat or promote air circulation to heat a space; these factors help to reduce the amount of dust being circulated around a room.

Convectors, or heaters that make use of convection, warm a room by following the principle that hot air rises. Electric convectors usually consist of a hollow case; open at the top and bottom with a visible coil heating element. (Quite often, when these radiators are switched on and you look inside them, you can see the heating element glowing red inside the radiator.) Convection heating works by creating a cycle of air circulation; cool air comes from underneath the radiator, it is drawn up from the bottom of the radiator and then warms up and rises or “convects” as it passes the heating element, emitting warm air from the top of the radiator. This warm air rises to the ceiling, cools and falls back to the floor then repeats the process. Electric fan heaters also work on the same principle; the only key difference being that the fan forces air across the electric element speeding up the movement of warm air. This means that fan heaters will blast warm air into a room very quickly, but as soon as they are turned off, the room will cool almost immediately. Radiators that work on convection can sometimes be the cause of black marks seen on walls above radiators; these are caused by the residue of dust being drawn up into the radiator and burnt onto the open element.

Liquid-filled electric radiators operate in similar way to radiant panel type heaters; they are sealed units with an internal heating element that releases this heat via the outer case, however the elements are submerged in a liquid such as oil, water with corrosion inhibitor or heat transfer agent/gel rather than being dry. Depending on the design of the radiator, the heat generated can be entirely radiant or a combination of radiant and convected heat. Historically, oil was used to fill electric radiators. However water is now increasingly common as this offers a cleaner option; for instance, The National Trust uses water-filled electric radiators as they do not want to risk using oil which could cause damage to a historical property or its contents.
So in summary, a radiator is just a vessel designed to release energy in the form of heat and the amount of heat that a radiator releases will depend on the amount of energy put into it; this is particularly true of electric radiators, where they will perform at approximately 100% efficiency.

Storage heaters use a large amount of cheap electricity, but lack controllability resulting in energy wastage. “On demand” heaters use less electricity and offer greater flexibility, but this electricity is not available on an Economy tariff.
Convected heat immediately warms the air in a room, but the heat dissipates almost immediately as the heat source is turned off. Radiated heat takes longer to warm a room as it heats objects not just the air, but this means that the room stays warm for much longer.
In practice, there are many aspects that will determine the best radiator(s) for your project including your lifestyle e.g. working hours, size restrictions, interior décor, budget and availability; your choice will be governed by which factors take priority. The research proves that when it comes to heating, there is no magic “one-size fits all” solution.

For more advice on choosing the most effective electric heating product, speak to an electric radiator specialist.

Written by Helena Gerwitz, General Manager of Feature Radiators, one of the UK’s leading retailers and distributors of electric radiators and electric central heating systems.

Feature Radiators is a one-stop port of call for anyone wanting high performance, stylish electric heating at competitive prices.

Our Electric Collection is made up of the best contemporary, designer, traditional cast iron electric radiators and heated towel rails on the market in terms of quality, design and value for money.

Electric products include our exclusive iRad range of radiators that wirelessly link together to provide a centrally controlled electric heating system that is easy to install, easy to use and easy on the eye, and our electric cast iron range, perfect for use in older properties where piped central heating cannot be installed or extended.

Just about every product in the world has two main markets: one for new product, and a second market for used sometimes referred to as surplus, reconditioned, rebuilt or remanufactured product.

Cars, computers, jewelry, and electronics are just a few examples of thriving industries that trade in used goods. The commercial and industrial electrical supply markets are no exception.

Electrical equipment, like automobiles and industrial machinery, are designed to last decades. However, like other durable goods, electrical equipment can be dangerous to the inexperienced whether it is new or used product. The confluence of these two facts means that product safety not just availability is critical to a healthy electrical marketplace.

In 1908, the National Association of Electrical Distributors was formed to “establish the electrical distributor as an essential force in the electrical industry and economy,” followed by the National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) in 1926. These venerable associations eventually expanded to include educational programs and standards to help improve the operations and safety of the electrical supply chain with a focus on new product from electrical Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). During the next 50 years, two other associations emerged to help service the used and installed base of electrical equipment. The Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA) focused on rewinding standards for electric motors, while the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) offered guidance, education, and certification for field-testing electrical equipment. But it wasn’t until 1996 that a group of independent electrical distributors joined forces to promote the reconditioning of industrial electrical product. The Professional Electrical Apparatus Recyclers League (PEARL) is the only trade association that offers technical reconditioning standards for industrial electrical product, a code of ethics, ongoing education, site and technician certification, and best practices. Today, PEARL’s corporate membership has grown to more than 70 independent electrical resellers with revenues in excess of $500 million each year.

Why Do We Need Used Electrical Equipment?

Why does a secondary, or “out of channel” market for electrical equipment exist? It exists for the same reason that electrical OEMs and wholesale distributors exist – supply and demand.

Consider a manufacturing plant that has a failed component in a critical electrical service. A new replacement component is not available from the manufacturer and distributors for weeks, months, or worse, not at all. So what is the plant to do?

How about the power generating station that distributes electricity through a vintage – but perfectly serviceable – 15kv switchgear built in 1959. The station needs to upgrade their integral tie breaker from 2000A to 3000A to keep up with escalating demand.

The most cost effective (and practical) way to upgrade the service is to replace the tie breaker with one of similar vintage and design, but with the higher current rating. Unfortunately, primary supply channels stopped stocking this product 30 years ago.

What about the new office building that is falling further and further behind schedule waiting for a certain size and type of conduit or conduit fittings, only to discover weeks past the original delivery date that the material is on backorder with no estimated time of delivery?

Each of these cases represents need-it-now demand for electrical products – critical demand from the customers’ perspectives. Enter the secondary electrical supply house. They’ve acquired and warehoused hard-to-find electrical product for just these types of situation. However, even when the replacement component is located, the question remains: How safe is the replacement?

The only way to answer the “safety” question is to validate the component through acceptance testing, and when necessary, recondition the component to meet or exceed the product’s original performance specifications, or upgrade the component with newer technologies that exceed the original specification.

This is where a knowledgeable secondary channel for electrical product performs a valuable and necessary service, particularly as OEMs continue to adopt ‘lean’ manufacturing processes that extend lead times for many pieces of electrical equipment.

To answer this demand, independent resellers of new, surplus, and reconditioned electrical products have acquired massive inventories of electrical service equipment from closed industrial plants, scaled-back construction projects, and electrical distributors themselves when OEMs discontinue or change product lines. Unlike OEMs and franchise electrical distributors, these independent electrical distributors hold inventory much longer than the primary channel so that when customers need a component for expansion or replacement, the device is available and the customer can get back to business.

Take nothing for granted.

Today, homeowners take electricity for granted. With a flip of a switch, you can turn on the lights, charge electrical appliances and heat food in the microwave. It is very simple and convenient. But, remember that a lot of effort goes into making electricity available to you. And, it is imperative that you ensure safe usage of electricity. A safe electrical system is necessary for every home. It becomes all the more important for old homes because it contains old wires and outdated technology.

Have you purchased an old home recently? Have you inherited an old property lately? If you wish to live in an old home, you will have to consider an electrical renovation project. It will enable you to upgrade the electrical system of your home and make it safe as well as energy-efficient.

Whenever you consider the possibility of an electrical renovation project, do not forget to think about safety. If you do not ensure safe installation of electrical wires and equipment, you will violate the Ontario Electrical Safety Code. Electrical Safety Authority (ESA) publishes the technical document every three years. It governs all kinds of electrical wiring projects as well as electrical installation projects in homes and commercial properties.

2015 Ontario Electrical Safety Code

The ESA published a new safety code for the homeowners of Ontario in order to consider several changes that were made in the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC). It includes major changes to the following sections:

· Renewable energy,

· Hazardous locations,

· Electric heating,

· Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs),

· Non-commercial docks,

· LED in residential occupancies,

· Supply connectors for recreational vehicles, etc.

Will the New Ontario Electrical Safety Code affect your Electrical Renovation Project?

According to the law, every renovation project that a homeowner undertakes after May 5, 2016 must comply with the requirements of the Ontario Electrical Safety Code. So, discuss everything related to legal compliance with your electrical contractor before starting the work.

Do not consider any renovation project as a DIY job. Faulty wires and damaged circuits can result in loss of life. So, it is better to rely on the expertise of a licensed electrical contractor to do the job for you.

Common Electrical Code Violations

An ESA inspector will determines whether your renovation project complies with the Ontario Electrical Safety Code. If he finds any violation of the safety code, he can issue you a Defect Notice. Here a couple of violations that can put you on the wrong side of the law:

· Ungrounded receptacles

· Unapproved connectors

· Defective electrical panel

· Improper installation of electrical wires

· Use of outdated technology

· Unsafe electrical maintenance techniques

· Overloaded circuits

· Outdated electrical devices

· DIY electrical renovation projects

Expert at your Service!

If you receive a Defect Notice from the ESA, do not worry. The authorities will provide you with a timeframe to correct the electrical defect. But, it is important to remember that correcting the defect is not a DIY job. Consult a licensed electrical contractor in your area to help you out. Before hiring a contractor, make sure that he understands everything related to the new Ontario Electrical Safety Code and has experience of correcting the defects properly. It will ensure that you do not have to face any problem with the authorities in the future.

Introduction

As gas prices continue to rise throughout the nation, rumors of oil conspired wars loom in the Middle East, and the lingering threat of human-induced harmful global warming becomes a reality; it is clear that an alternative form of energy must be implemented soon to replace the nation’s addiction to oil. While oil is used for many different forms of energy, vehicles used for transportation are responsible for a large portion of the oil consumption in the United States. Therefore, the need to convert our gas-guzzling autos to run off of alternative forms of energy is the first step to wining our nation off of oil usage.

Over the past decade, there have been several attempts to produce alternative forms of energy which can be converted to power by our every day drivers. These attempts have encompassed everything from solar to alcohol powered vehicles; however, due to lack of technology most of these non-greenhouse emitting vehicles have remained as nothing more than a dream. However, electric vehicles proves to be the exception as it has already been mass produced in 1996 by one of the Nations leading auto manufactures.

The first initial push that drove automobile producers to create an electric car came from the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The CARB mandated that 2% of the cars sold in California by 1998 must be considered “Zero Emission Vehicles”(ZEVs). After the 1998 dead line, new requirements were made by the CARB, mandating that by 2003, 10% of all automobiles sold in California must be ZEVs (Motavalli, 1997).

General Motors was one of the first companies to meet the CARB’s new mandates for the first zero emission vehicle. They did this with the release of the first electric vehicle known as the EV1 (Electric Vehicle 1). Conversely, soon after General Motors started, they abandoned the popular project joining the Federal Government in successfully suing the State of California to remove the CARB zero emissions requirements.

Hence, despite the large need, want and availability of the mass production of electric vehicles—they are still not being produced due to the overwhelming influence of oil driven industries and the Federal Government’s lack of intervention.

The Need

Global warming has been the center of environmental debate since 1896 when Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, hypnotized that the build up of carbon dioxide, produced by burning fossil fuels, such as coal, would increase the temperature on the planet (Clemmitt, 2006). Since the establishment of Arrhenisus’ theory on global warming over 100 years ago, scientific advancements, and new technologies have re-enforced his theory. However, the most convincing evidence of global warming is the actual changes that are occurring throughout the globe.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the global temperature has increased by one degree Fahrenheit (Clemmitt, 2006). While one degree may not seem worthy of alarm, a change in one degree can cause a devastating domino effect that can lead to the demise of the entire planet. For example, the one-degree increase in the global temperature has caused many of the worlds glaciers to begin to melt. Glacier melting is currently affecting Montana’s Glacier National Park, where nearly 120 glaciers have melted since 1910. As glaciers, such as those in Montana’s Glacier National Park, melt they cause the sea levels throughout the world to rise in both temperature and depth. Although the negative effects of melting glaciers and rising sea levels may not seem detrimental, the increase temperatures from global warming are responsible for “… providing added fuel to growing storms and hurricanes, making them more intense” (Lener, 2006). The overwhelming deadly aftermath of Hurricane Katrina has been directly attributed to global warming. Rising global temperatures are also being blamed for the European heat wave of 2003 that was responsible for killing 25,000 people (Clemmitt 2006). The list of increasing powerful and frequent natural disasters continues to grow as the globe continues to heat up.

The director of Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, James Hurrell, told the Senate’s Energy and Natural Resources Committee recently that, “The climate is changing, and the rate of change as projected exceeds anything seen in nature in the past 10,000 years” (Clemmitt, 2006). With the deadly effects of global warming already unfolding throughout the world, the solution must be implemented immediately.

Currently, green house gasses are the highest they have been in 75,000 years. In addition, human emitted carbon dioxide is at the highest levels it has ever been in the history of man (Clemmitt, 2006). Hence, it is hard to ignore the theory, of human induced-global warming, when green house gas concentrations are parallel to the large amount of human produced carbon dioxide. It is also hard to ignore a panel of nearly 25,000 scientists gathered together in 2001 to form the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The team of scientist reported “That most of the observed warming of the last 50 years is attributable to human activities” (Cooper 2001). They furthered their argument by predicting that the Earth’s overall temperature could climb up to eleven degrees Fahrenheit, under the worst-case conditions, if the amount of green house gases continue to rise (Cooper 2001). If this takes place scientists have projected that “such a rise could inundate many low-lying islands and eventually threaten such areas as the New York City borough of Manhattan and Miami Beach” (Griffin, 1992). The green house gases responsible for current and future disasters are made-up of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. The increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are the direct result of the burning of fossil fuels and the source of most of the danger.

As show in Figure 1, nearly 1/3 of the increased levels of carbon dioxide can be contributed to transportation ( Cooper 2001).

Figure 1

Carbon dioxide is one of the byproducts that are produced by the burning of gasoline within the combustible engine found in all cars and trucks on the road today.

In other words, one of the solutions to preventing further global warming is to either stop transportation all together or implement an alternative form of energy, which does not produce carbon dioxide, to power our vehicles. Obviously, the economy and the human way of life would cease to exist if we stopped transportation altogether. However, the obvious decision to use an alternative form of fuel to save the earth is rejected by major oil companies and other related industries to keep Americans addicted to oil in order not to loose their $300 billion dollar a year industry (Motavalli, 1997).

The Kyoto Protocol

Recently, measures have been taken to curb the production of carbon dioxide, not only on a state level with the “Zero-Emissions Law” passed by the California State Legislature, but these efforts are also seen on a global level as well. In 1997, more than 150 countries met in Kyoto Japan to sign the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that required signing countries to reduce green house gasses to 5% below 1990 levels by 2005 through the implementation of taxes and laws. The United States, responsible for emitting the largest amount of green house gases, vowed to cut their share by 7% under the Clinton administration. As the deadline for the Protocol was set for February of 2005, the United States, under the Bush Administration, has since changed their stance stating that there is a lack of scientific evidence to support global warming (Cooper, 2001). Bush was also quoted by saying it [the Kyoto Protocol] shackled the U.S. economy(Cooper, 2005). In addition to the Bush administrations lack of support to the Kyoto Protocol, the U.S. Senate and the House of representatives are also opposed to the treaty (Clemmitt, 2006). One can only speculate that the rejection of the Kyoto Protocol and California’s zero emissions laws are just two examples of a larger picture: the oil and auto industries massive influence on the United States Government.

The Oil Industries Influence in the Government

The WSPA (Western States Petroleum Association) is made up a coalition of oil companies that are located in the western United States including: Mobile, Shell, Chevron and Arco. The WSPA is also one of the top five lobbyist employers in California. Therefore, much of the lobbying done in California is influenced from the major oil companies. Two of the major activist seen in California State’s legislature is know as CAUCA (Californians Against Utility Company Abuse) and CHAT (Californians Against Hidden Taxes). Both of these lobbyists are funded in part by the WSPA (Motavalli, 1997). The executive director of the “Grass Roots” lobby CHAT, Linda Mangels, even said, “I believe most, if not all of our funding comes from WSPA –that’s no secret,” (Motavalli, 1997). With such a powerful influence in the state legislature the WSPA has declined how much money it has invested in the campaign against the electric car mandates such as the Zero Emissions Mandate by the CARB and the CETC. (California Electric Transportation Coalition).

In addition to the massive influence of the WSPA, the coming fourth electric vehicle has also been hit hard by the AAMA (American Automobile Manufactures Association). The AAMA has done its own lobbying campaign against the electric vehicle. In six months, the auto industry spent around $500,000 to campaign against the electric car mandates (Motavalli, 1997). While that number may not seem that impressive, it represents nearly four times the amount of money the California Electric Transportation Coalition has available each year.

In a recent study named the Pollution Politics, done between the years 1991-1995, revealed that nearly $34 million dollars in public policy was spent by oil companies and automakers to influence public opinion against the electric car mandates. Of the $34 million spent, $29 million went towards lobbying and $3.97 million went towards donations to legislative candidates (Motavalli, 1997). The majority of the public relations campaigns done by both the auto and oil companies were aimed at the increase of taxes that it would take to promote the electric car. The public, however, was not informed of the larger amount of money they are currently spending to continue the use of gas-powered vehicles. As the numbers and facts are examined it is clear that the oil industry has used its power and influence, both monetarily and legally, to keep the electric car from being produced.

The Want

As gas prices rise and rumors of oil conspired wars are consistently looming in the Middle East, it comes as no surprise that the general public would prefer an electric powered vehicle over a gas powered vehicle. While a mass produced electric vehicle is not currently available on the market, the electric and gas hybrid is. The hybrid car takes electric technology and combines it with the traditional gas powered engine. The result is a low emissions vehicle that has a high mile per gallon rating, as the car relies on both electric and gas power.

In a resent study done by J.D. Power and Associates, 57% of the consumers in the U.S. who expected to purchase a new vehicle by 2009 are considering a hybrid vehicle (King Flounders, 2007). This attraction to hybrid vehicles offers the most realistic glimpse into the future of the motor vehicle industry. Hence, it seems only logical that if the hybrid vehicle is attracting consumers because of the electric qualities, that a completely electric vehicle would gain an even greater demand.

This demand for an electric car was recently experienced by General Motor Company with the release of the first production electric vehicle, the EV1. The first EV1 concept car was revealed in the Los Angles Auto Show, in 1990. General Motor executives were surprised by the large demand for the concept to become a reality. The demands were not only from the public but also from the California State Legislature as they continued to enforce the Zero-Emissions Law that required General Motors to produce the vehicle. The EV1 was released by General Motors to the general public in the fall of 1996. As the public discovered that the completely electric car was about to hit the market, it became obvious that the demand for the EV1 was still strong.

Even with the limited availability, there was a large waiting list to purchase the new electric cars. Perhaps the large demand for the EV1 spawned from its ability to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in nine seconds, the standard air bags, anti-lock breaks, cruise control, traction control, electric locks, keyless entry and ignition, liquid free batteries, aluminum frame, or the 90 mile highway range of the batteries (Cook 1996). The car had such a high demand that the Saturn dealerships, where the car was offered for lease, had to screen the potential owners and then select only the most qualified applicants from the list (Cook 1996). Those that qualified were only allowed to lease the EV1 with no option of purchase. Of course the EV1 had its share of critics; however, due to the popular demand, it was apparent that General Motors had taken a step in the right direction.

At the end of the leasing option in 2003, many of the satisfied owners offered to buy the EV1. Instead of taking the buyers offers General Motors had all the EV1 returned, taken to a junk yard in Arizona and crushed (More, 2006). This bizarre decision to suddenly crush the vehicles raised the eyebrows of many EV1 enthusiasts. The decision to crush the EV1 came the same month the State of California lifted the Zero-Emissions mandate to accept lower forms of carbon producing vehicles (Silberg, 2006).

The Means

After the recall of the EV1, General Motors stated that the production costs for the all electric vehicles were too high and the technology did not allow for their production. While this excuse may have been effective over ten years ago, it has become more apparent that the technology is currently available and affordable. The technology to build an electric car has become so affordable that as Bill More, an author of the Mother Earth News, points out, “Anyone who has the time, talent and the resources can convert a conventional automobile to electric drive” (More, 2006). Of course most Americans do not have the ability to convert their daily driver into an electric vehicle, but it does show that the technology is currently available.

Often times many critics of the electric car debate that the car would need re-charging too often in order to allow the user to travel the distances needed throughout the day. Amazingly enough, one of the breakthroughs technologies of the EV1 was the ability to reuse kinetic energy displaced when breaking. This recycled energy could charge the battery up to 30%. Of course advanced breaking methods do not replace the need for recharging the batteries, but there are ways of incorporating charging batteries into our everyday life as seen in Europe.

Electric cars are one of the fastest growing forms of transportation in London; the number of electric cars jumping from 49 to 1,278 in two years. To make up for this increased form of electric transportation London has provided re-charge bays next to most parking meters (Britain: Charging around the city; Electric cars, 2007). It is only a matter of time before all of England is equipped to handle the electric car.

While the mass produced electric car is not currently on the market, smaller simpler electric vehicles are. The electric
scooter [http://www.mycityscooters.com] and electric bike are two forms of electric vehicles that are mass produced and can be bought at the local toy shop or even over the Internet. The electric scooter can be bought in two forms; the classic Vespa style, which appears resemble a motorcycle; or the children style electric scooter that represents a push style scooter. Both types of electric scooters are extremely popular amongst college students and inner-city commuters alike. The electric scooter is powered by batteries that can be re-charged using a conventional AC adaptor. Jerome Byrd, a web publisher, who lives in Philadelphia, has driven to work and throughout Philadelphia on his electric scooter and has gone nearly a total of 30,000 miles (Moore, 2007).

Even more popular is the electric
bike [http://www.mycityscooters.com]. Just like the electric scooter, the electric bike is powered by batteries and can come in two forms: the human assisted (comes with pedals) or the completely electric bike (does not need pedals). While there are many different forms of e-bikes they are all measured in watts and amps. The more watts and amps that you purchase the more powerful the electric bike (and scooter) are. These bikes can reach up to 24 mph and travel up to 15 miles on a single charge. Although, the electric scooter and electric bike are by no means an alternative to a car, their ability to be mass produced commercially is paving the way.

Conclusion

Each year, as the temperature rises and more human lives are lost to the intensified natural disasters due to global warming, we are reminded of the need for a solution to combat global warming. The solution comes in the form of a pollution free electric vehicle. While the mighty oil companies and their minions, the U.S. government and auto manufacturers, have done all they can to stop alternative forms of energy from emerging, the overwhelming need, the undeniable want and the available technologies cannot stop the electric car from once again quietly gliding down a street near you some day soon.

The electric razor (also known as the electric dry shaver) has a rotating or oscillating blade. The electric razor itself does not require the use of shaving cream, soap or water, with the razor being powered by a small DC motor. The typical major designs of this evolution in shaving includes the foil variety of electric razor, which uses a fine structure of layered metal bands that partially pulls out the hair follicle before cutting off the extracted length and then allowing the remainder of the hair follicle to retract below the surface of the skin. A recent study in the UK alone has discovered that almost 32% of men shave regularly with an electric razor. Using an electric razor has many great benefits without the major disadvantages that can be associated to shaving with a blade. If properly used, most electric razors can offer the user a shave that is every bit of close as a normal shave but with the absence of cuts and scraping irritation, The electric razor is a quicker, less messy and more convenient way to shave, but however some patience is necessary when starting to use a razor of this type, as the skin usually takes some time to adjust to the way the electric razor lifts and cuts the hair.

Preparation Before Shaving

To begin shaving with an electric razor you must follow the correct preparation in order to achieve the ultimate electric razor shaving experience, we recommend the following to begin:

1. A good facial wash or facial scrub – Either of these products will clean the face and leave the pores open and ready for shaving.

2. A good quality pre shave oil – This can be just normal pre shave oil or specifically formulated electric razor pre shave oil, both will allow the razor to glide effortlessly over the skin and will decrease the chances of painful pulling.

3. An electric razor (obviously)- This can have one of two head designs, either foil or rotary. The rotary cutting system works well on people with lighter facial and beard hair, whilst the foil cutting system is more effective on dense thick facial hair and beards.

4. An electric razor brush – This will allow the cleaning of the electric razor once the shave has commenced and will allow the razor to operate at maximum efficiency

5. A premium quality skin food product – Whilst shaving your facial hair the user will also shave a layer of skin off the face. This will usually contain vital minerals and nutrients that promote healthy skin, a skin food product will replenish these mineral reserves.

6. Finally a skin moisturiser or aftershave milk, both of these will replenish the skins moisture after shaving and will allow it to retain the moisture it produces; this will help the skin heal faster and more effectively after shaving.

Shaving With An Electric Razor

In order to get the most out of your electric razor and to achieve the finest and closest shaving experience you’ve ever had, these are the steps that we recommend:

1. Firstly make sure you purchase the correct electric razor for your facial hair type. As mentioned previously, the rotary head design shaving system works better on lighter and finer facial hair and beards, whilst the foil head operated system is more effective on dense and thick facial hair and beards.

2. Prepare your face properly with a good quality facial scrub or facial wash and dry thoroughly. This will open the pores and clean the skin ready for the shave.

3. Next use a pre-shave oil, let this oil sink deep into the skin and use it generously over the face. This will act as a lubricant between the skin and the electric razor, thus reducing friction. This oil will also help the hair follicles to straighten making them easier to shave and with less risk of pulling.

4. While you are waiting for the pre-shave oil to sink into the skin you should briefly clean your electric razor with the cleaning brush provided. Brush each of the electric razor heads separately and the protective shields on the electric razor as well. Not only will this enable and closer more comfortable shave, but it will also preserve your electric razor for longer.

5. Once shaving has commenced start to shave against the grain of the beard or facial hair. Doing this will help you pull the hair follicle protruding out of the skin and so the electric razor will be able to cut lower down the follicle, thus resulting in a closer shave.

6. The next thing to do will shaving is to go slowly. This may sound like common sense but when shaving with an electric razor it is very easy to get carried away and rush the process. Whilst shaving with an electric razor is faster and neater than shaving with a standard razor blade, it needs time and slow pressure to be completely effective, especially under complex areas like the chin and neck.

7. After the shave has been completed ensure that you apply a light coating of skin food onto the shaved area. This will replenish the vital minerals and protective oils that have been removed from the skin during shaving.

8. Finally, never under estimate the use of a good moisturiser to replenish all the lost moisture in your skin and to regenerate the protective skin layers that shaving removes.

Cleaning Your Electric Razor

The common electric shaver as mentioned above works in essence due to moving or oscillating blades that move back and forth to trim the area of hair that you need trimmed. Due to the very design of the electric razor, this motion creates hair blockages in the razor itself, which decrease the electric razors effectiveness and power. You should clean your electric shaver regularly in order to keep your blades fresh and at optimal efficiency, for good hygiene and sanitation purposes and in order to increase the life span of your electric shaver.

Here it is recommended that you clean your electric razor regularly, preferably after every third or forth shave. With a foil head electric razor you can lift off the head frame, which holds the screen (foil), and then brush out all the hair follicles from the under side with the electric razor cleaning brush that should have been provided with your electric razor. Make sure not to touch the foil screen itself with the cleaning brush as the screen is very fragile and requires great care. Next you can run the under side of the head and foil under water in order to rinse out any remaining hair follicles that brushing alone could not remove. Below this foil screen you will find the electrics razor’s cutters, these are the main components to any electric razor, this is the part of the electric razor that you must take the greatest care to clean and maintain properly. Hair follicles, dirt and general debris can easily build up inside the cutter area of the electric razor and reduce the electric razors effectiveness and power and so take extra care and attention to make sure that this part is properly cleaned.

For rotary head electric razors, the cleaning method differs slightly. Here you must lift of the electric razors head assembly unit and brush out the under side of the three electric razor cutters and the three chambers. Here ensure that you do not tap the electric razor heads on the sink itself to remove any trapped hair follicles as this has a high risk of damaging and altering the shape of the precision made combs. Every month or so you must make sure that you remove each of these individual cutters and combs from the retaining plate, making sure that each cutter and comb are kept in their original ‘set’, as mixing these up would have a detrimental effect on your electric razors performance as they are each designed to compliment each other. After this is done you can brush the hair follicles from the cutters and then soak them in liquid cleaner and lubricant. This will ensure that your electric razor is kept in its peak operating condition and that you will never be disappointed in its performance.

Finally after these cleaning steps have been undertaken you must ensure that you have correctly lubricated your electric razor. Here it is especially important to lubricate the metal surfaces of the screen and cutter. Here just spray a light lubricant on the shaving screen while the electric shaver is running. This will immediately have the effect of freeing up any metal on metal binding which will nick and blunt the surface of your electric razor.

Other Electric Razor Tips

Here are a list of additional tips that we think may help any novice or seasoned electric razor user, these are:

1. Ensure that you completely read the user manual that comes with your electric razor. These are produced for you specifically and will cover all of the basic functions of your safety razor along with some ideal shaving tips.

2. Shave daily. Here you’re skin must adapt to an electric razor if you have switched from a razor blade. The skin will need to get used to and adapt to the way in which an electric razor removes hair follicles. By shaving everyday you ensure that your skin will adapt to this change quicker.

3. As stated in the previous section. Always ensure that you give your electric razor a brief clean after every three to four shaves and then make sure that a detailed clean is committed every month as well.